Glossary

This main Glossary is backed by a “ghost glossary” of Revelation symbols that via the Index locate a symbol to the left-hand column of a particular page whose matching opposite right-hand column then explains the symbol.
AHAnno Hijrae stands for years on the Muslim calendar that began with Muhammad’s flight from Mecca to Medina in AD 622.
Abbasid Caliphate (AD 750–1258)—the dynastic regime that descended from Muhammad’s uncle Abbas, overthrew the Umayyad Caliphate in AD 749, and made Baghdad its capital.
Abdu’l-Bahá—Arabic title meaning Servant of Glory for Baha’u’llah’s eldest living son and successor, and the third Primary-Figure of the Baha’i Revelation (1844–1921).
Abjad—Arabic numerology.
Abu-Sufyan—Emir of Mecca and chief of the Umayyad tribe, enemy of Muhammad, and father of Muawiya.
Acco, Acre, Akka—ancient fortified city on the coast of Israel, 14 miles north of Haifa.
Ahura MazdaLord of Wisdom, the Zoroastrian name for God.
Ali—Muhammad’s legitimate successor and First Imam of Shi’i Muslims. He was Muhammad’s cousin, stepson, son-in-law, and second follower.
Apocalypse—Greek for Unveiling and the name for the Book of Revelation favored by Catholics.
Armageddon—Hebrew for Mountain of God’s Preacher also symbolizing the whole 20th Century of warfare.
Artaxerxes—Persian king whose effective 457 BCE edict let Ezra return and rebuild Jerusalem and its Temple.
Avesta—Zoroastrian Scripture.
 
Bab—Arabic for Door or Gate as the title of Ali Muhammad (1819–1850), the Founder of the Babi Faith.
Babi Faith—the Faith founded by the Bab that became the Baha’i Faith.
Baghavad Gita—Hindu Scripture.
Baghdad— Abbasid capital city founded in AD 762 on the Tigris River.
Bahá—Arabic for Glory or Splendor.
Baha’i Faith—the Faith or religion founded by Baha’u’llah.
Baha’u’llahGlory of God in Arabic as the title of Husayn Ali (1817–1892), the Founder of the Baha’i Faith.
Bayan—main Babi Scripture whose prime theme was the imminent advent of a Promised-One greater than the Bab.
BEBaha’i Era stands for years on the Baha’i calendar that began with the proclamation of the Bab in 1844.
BEBefore Hijrae stands for years on the Moslem calendar before Muhammad fled from Mecca to Medina in AD 622.
Book of Certitude, Kitab-i-Iqan—important Baha’i Scripture that Baha’u’llah wrote over 48 hours to explain progressive revelation and symbols in the Bible and Quran.
 
Caliph—Arabic for Successor, a blasphemous title taken by early Muslim rulers.
Christ—Greek for Anointed as the title specific to Jesus as a Messiah.
Codex—the name of the first Greek books developed after the scroll.
Constantinople—the capital city of the Byzantine Empire and Eastern Orthodox Church (AD 330–1453).
 
Dinkird—Zoroastrian Scripture.
Dispensation—the Era of a Manifestation Messenger of God and his new Law.
 
Edicts of Toleration—important laws in the Ottoman Tanzimat Reforms that gave non-Muslims the same rights as Muslims, and that let Jews own property and land in the Holy Land and Muslims convert to Christianity.
Elijah—Old Testament prophet of Mount Carmel who cleansed Judaism of Baal worship, and whose return Jews expect.
Euphrates—Fertile Crescent river running parallel to the Tigris River through Syria and Iraq.
 
Faith—the spiritual system or religion established by a major Manifestation Messenger of God.
 
GAAPGenerally Accepted Accounting Principles.
Gematria—Hebrew numerology.
Ghenza Rama—main Sabaean Scripture.
Gospel—main Christian Scripture (usually for the whole New Testament).
Guardianship—institution of successorship established by the Will and Testament of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, first filled by Shoghi Effendi then by the Baha’i Universal House of Justice.
 
Haifa—major port city in Israel at the foot of and on Mount Carmel.
Hidden Imam—the Twelfth Imam.
Holy Land—Israel (including the West Bank).
Holy Spirit—the intermediary force that joins God and humans.
Husayn—the Third Imam son of Ali and grandson of Muhammad martyred by the Umayyads.
Hysteron-proteronlast-first Greek grammar that lists results before causes in reverse chronological order.
 
Imam—Arabic for Leader as the title of the twelve Shi’i Imams who succeeded Muhammad (now used for other Muslim clergy too).
Iran—the modern name of Persia.
Islam—Arabic for submission to the will of Allah, and the name of the Muslim Faith.
Ishmael—Abraham’s firstborn son by his maid Hagar (Gen. 16:21).
Istanbul—the Ottoman name for Constantinople as the Ottoman capital conquered in AD 1453.
 
Kaaba—Arabic for cube as the name of Islam’s holiest site, the black building in Mecca holding the black stone of Abraham.
Khadijah—Muhammad’s first follower and sole wife until her death.
Kufah—capital city of the Shi’i Imamate on the Euphrates River in Iraq.
 
Mahdi—Arabic for Guided as the title of the lesser Sunni Promised-One bringing an Era of peace and justice.
Manifestation of God—Major Messenger or Prophet mirroring God and His attributes (from whom Minor Prophets derive authority and inspiration).
Mashiach—Hebrew for Anointed as the title of the Messiah.
Mazdeanism—another name for Zoroastrianism.
Mecca—Islam’s holiest city and birthplace of Muhammad.
Medina— Islam’s second holiest city and burial place of Muhammad.
Mesopotamia—Greek for between rivers as the Fertile Crescent land between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers corresponding to populated Iraq and part of Syria.
Mount Carmel—Hebrew Carm-El for Vineyard of God, as the Mountain where Elijah killed the priests of Baal (1Kings 18.19–41) and where the Baha’i World Center stands.
Muawiya—first Umayyad Caliph (Successor) and son of Abu-Sufyan.
Muhdi—Arabic for Guider as the title of the greater Sunni Promised-One bringing an Era of peace and justice.
Muslim/Moslem—Arabic for Submitter to the will of Allah.
 
Persia—the enduring name of modern Iran, derived from its main province of Fars.
 
Qaim—Arabic for Raised as the title of the lesser Shi’i Promised-One bringing an Era of peace and justice.
Qayyum—Arabic for Raiser as the title of the greater Shi’i Promised-One bringing an Era of peace and justice.
Quddus—the last eighteenth disciple and closest follower of the Bab.
Quran—Muslim Scripture (spelt also Koran).
 
Rashidun Caliph—Arabic for Righteous Successor as the title taken by the Muslim leadership following Muhammad.
Revelation(s)—the name for the Book of Revelation favored by Protestants.
Revelation—a Faith or religion based on the teachings of a major Manifestation Messenger or Prophet of God.
 
Sassanid dynasty—the last Zoroastrian dynasty of Persia (AD 224–650).
Scroll—the form that ancient “books” took before the codex appeared.
Seal of the Prophets—important title for Muhammad that Muslims use to exclude successors (even though Muslim prophecies predict them).
Shechinah— the feminine aspect and Presence of God.
Shi’i/Shi’ah—Islam’s main branch that follows the Imams as successors of Muhammad.
Shiraz—the southern Persian city where the Bab was born, famous for its mystic poets.
Shoghi Effendi—great-grandson of Baha’u’llah, grandson of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, and the fourth Primary-Figure and Guardian of the Baha’i Revelation (1897–1957).
Sultan—Arabic for Sovereign and the standard title of Ottoman rulers.
Sunna—Arabic for the Way of Muhammad.
Sunni—Islam’s main branch following that follows the Caliphs as the successors of Muhammad.
 
Tablet—a sacred Epistle or letter.
Tanzimat Reforms—laws enacted in the 1800s by the Ottoman government (Sublime Porte), containing important Edicts of Toleration.
Teheran [also Tihran]—capital of recent Persia and modern Iran.
Temple—the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem, last destroyed in AD 70.
Tipitaka—Buddhist Scripture.
Torah/Pentateuch—the main Jewish Scripture of the five first Old Testament Books.
Twelfth Imam—the last serial Imam after Muhammad. The Imamate ended in CE 873 after the death of the Eleventh Imam. Baha’is say he was childless and that the Bab became the Twelfth Imam. Shi’i Muslims say that he had a five-year old son—an erstwhile Twelfth Imam—who vanished at his father’s funeral and whose Return they await (if so as the Bab).
 
Umayyads—the most powerful tribe of Mecca whose idol-trade was hurt by the Muhammad’s teachings and whose dynasty ran the Umayyad Caliphate.
Universal House of Justice—the supreme administrative body of the Baha’i Faith seated on Mount Carmel and elected every five years.
 
YHWH/Jehovah—important Old Testament name for God.
 
Zion/Mount Zion—the beacon peak of Jerusalem.
Zohar—mystic Jewish Scripture full of prophecies.
Zarathustrianism—the original Persian name of Zoroastrianism.