The Divine Civilization of New Jerusalem

 

The Millennial Sabbath Bride also portrays the divine civilization of New Jerusalem:
The Holy City, the Jerusalem of God…is the Law of God…compared sometimes to a bride. It is a prophetic symbol, meaning the coming again of the Divine Teaching to enlighten the hearts of men.…It is long since this Holy Guidance has governed the lives of humanity. Now, at last, the Holy City of the New Jerusalem has come…to lighten the whole world.…This heavenly Jerusalem is none other than divine civilization, and it is now ready. It is to be and shall be organized, and the oneness of humankind will be a visible fact. Humanity will then be brought together.…The Orient and Occident will be conjoined, and the banner of international peace will be unfurled. The world shall at last find peace, and the equalities and rights of men shall be established.[1]
Reflect upon the words of John.…The City of God hath appeared…in full adornment and the God of All is become manifest…It is the heavenly religion which secures the prosperity of the human world as the guarantor of human happiness.…This Day Jerusalem hath attained unto a new Evangel…embracing the Law which the Prophet Isaiah…anticipated, and which the writer of the Apocalypse…described as the ‘new heaven’ and the ‘new earth’, as ‘the Tabernacle of God’, as the ‘Holy City’, as the ‘Bride’, namely the ‘New Jerusalem coming down from God'.[2]
Material civilization is one of the means for progress of the world of mankind, yet until it becomes combined with divine civilization the…felicity of mankind, will not be attained.…Material civilization is like a globe of glass. Divine civilization is the light itself, and the glass without the light is dark…no matter how infinitely graceful, elegant and beautiful it may be.…As heretofore material civilization has been extended, the divine civilization must now be promulgated to accomplish the progress effected by religion. As America in particular has attained a marvelous material civilization, now let spiritual forces…animate this great body.[3]
 
New Jerusalem as a Diamond:The specs that Revelation gives for New Jerusalem (v. 21.16) show that
The city is laid out as a square, its length equal to its breadth and that
Its length, breadth, and height are equal.
These specs of John permit three main shapes (apart from intriguing four-dimensional structures[4] past this discussion):
The Square Pyramid is simply the top half of the most favored diamond shape below.
The Cube is the popular New Jerusalem shape favored by Christians, and the City of God that hath descended from heaven, the celestial Kaaba for Muslims.[5]Kaaba, the Arabic for cube, is the name of the most holy site of Islam, a cubic 11–meter black building in Mecca set with the black stone of Abraham, the Faith’s most precious relic. The cube is also one of the series of five perfect solids (tetrahedron, cube, octahedron, dodecahedron, and icosahedron) that fit Euler’s formula: number of faces + number of corners = number of edges + 2
The Octahedral Diamond is also a perfect solid that rides higher in the series than the cube. The most beautiful and powerful diamond fits John’s specs for the shape of New Jerusalem best. The diamond fits snugly between the poles and equator of the human world. The diamond is a prism that refracts the white light of truth as the seven rainbow-colors of the Faiths. The diamond is the gemstone whose hardness make it the best first foundation and the best matrix of the New Jerusalem wall. Diamonds of immortality form the gates of the city. The diamond’s twelve 12,000–furlong cutting-edges total the 144,000 coding for
many believers progressively perfecting the Faiths through hard work,each a diamond blazing in the sunand all chips hewn from the Diamond of Divine Knowledge, who will shine and sparkle with such brilliancyas the diamond age gets established in the hearts.[6]
 

The Divine Diamond Civilization of New Jerusalem

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The Breastplate YASPEH and the New Jerusalem YASPIS: The sparkling diamond appears in two important sets of biblical gemstones. The YASPEH last breastplate-gemstone of the High-Priest, and the IASPIS first New Jerusalem foundation-gemstones both identify as diamond. The YASPEH is diamond because Jewish writings say that it
is lighted up
has all the colors of the twelve colors, and
changes color, being now red, now green, now even black.[7]
The similar-sounding IASPIS is diamond because in Revelation the
Enthroned-One gleams as IASPIS
New Jerusalem shines as most preciouscrystallizing IASPIS
New Jerusalem’s first foundation is IASPIS
New Jerusalem’s wall matrix is IASPIS.8] (Jasper—the common translation of IASPIS—fails to fit the bill of YASPEH or IASPIS; Far from strong, brilliant, and crystallizing, it is lackluster, soft, and opaque).
The wall of spiritual Law protecting the divine civilization of New Jerusalem has 12 foundations and 12 gates engraved with names. Its 12 foundations are gemstones and its 12 pearly gates are made of jewels and pearls twenty cubits high and ten cubits wide. (Natural gemstones include pearl, amber, and coral.) Considered together, its 12 foundation-gemstones and 12 gate-gemstones form a unitary 24-gemstonestructure, manned by the 24 Revelation elders just as the Temple wall was once manned by 24 watches of Cohens and Levites.[9]
Tribal names are engraved on the 12 gate-gemstones and apostolic names on the 12 foundation-gemstones. Curiously, John describes the names in painfully wordy ways:
Rev. 21.12: 12 gates…over the gates…names engraved that are the names of the 12 tribes of sons of Israel
Rev. 21.14: 12 foundations; and upon them the 12 names of the 12 Apostles.
 
This out-of-character wordiness of John suggests more than meets the ear: specifically a full list of 12 names on each single gate and on each single foundation. If so, the wall of Law of New Jerusalem has 288 names, just as the Temple once had 288 singers (1Chron. 25.7). There is a list of 12 tribal names on each of its gates and a list of 12 apostolic names on each of its foundations. These 144 gate-names and 144 foundation-names add to the symbolic strength of the 144–cubit thick of the New Jerusalem wall.
Regardless, each list of 12 still has a leading name. The 12 lead names on the 12 gate-gemstones are taken to follow John’s own one-of-a-kind tribal list: (1) Judah, (2) Reuben, (2) Gad, (4) Asher, (5) Naphtali, (6) Manasseh, (7) Simeon, (8) Levi, (9) Issachar, (10) Zebulon, (11) Joseph, and (12) Benjamin (v. 7.5–8). Historically, tribal lists begin in birth and seniority order,[10] then later follow sequences set by blessings, census, exploration, territory, campsites, breastplate gemstones, and now John. In addition, Levi and Joseph are often replaced with Manasseh and Ephraim, the sons of Joseph.[11]But tribal lists are constant in one thing: they all list 12 male names! Now the only tribe left is Judah—today’s Jews.[12]
As for John’s tribal list, its odd order can be explained by John having:
started with seniority order, namely (1) Reuben, (2) Simeon, (3) Levi, (4) Judah, (5) Issachar, (6) Zebulon, (7) Joseph, (8) Benjamin, (9) Gad, (10) Asher, (11) Dan, and (12) Naphtali
kept Levi and Joseph symbolically retaining religion and tradition
promoted Judah to top place as the tribe from which the Messiah would come and king among the tribes on the High-Priest’s shoulder-onyxes (whose tribal names otherwise take birth order)[13]
advanced social equality by raising maid-sons Gad, Asher, Naphtali, and Dan to 3rd,4th, 5th, and 6th positions[14]
substituted Manasseh (forgiveness) for Dan (judgment), the tribe despised by Jewsfor worshiping idols and by Christians as the tribe from which the Antichrist will be born.[15]
Each of John’s tribal names entrains its original breastplate-gemstone as the New Jerusalem gate-gemstone as its lead name.
Likewise, each list of 12 apostolic names has a leading name. But for the 12 lead apostolic names on the 12 foundation-gemstones, John surprisingly supplies no apostolic list in either his Apocalypse or Gospel. But other apostolic lists are quite consistent, including the earliest one of Mark: (1) Peter (Simon), (2) James (Jacob, Son of Zebedee), (3) John (Son of Zebedee), (4) Andrew (Andrai), (5) Philip, (6) Bartholomew (Nathaniel), (7) Matthew (Levi, son of Alphaeus), (8) Thomas (Judas), (9) James (Jacob, son of Alphaeus), (10) Thaddeus (Judas, Lebbaus), (11) Simon (Zealot, Canaanite), and (12) Matthias (replacing Judas Iscariot).[16]
The Breastplate-Gemstones were set in four rows of three, in right-to-left Hebrew direction.[17] Alas, their Hebrew names defy neat translation. Jewish sages have hotly debated some thirty candidate gemstones for generations, beginning from when
two angels in heaven, Gabriel and Michael, dispute the meaning of ‘kadkod’.…One of them says that ‘kadkod’ means stones of shoham [onyx] and the other says it means stones of jasper. The Holy One…said to them: ‘Let it be both as this and that’.[18]
In other words, God is tellin Gabriel and Michael that it is the inner symbolical significance…not the outward or literal meaning[19] (of this or that gemstone) that really matters. Historical changes in gemstone names due to frequent shifts in source, culture, fashion, market makes translating them difficult.[20]
Like those Jewish sages, Christian scholars have also striven long and hard to match the breastplate-gemstones as a template with the New Jerusalem gemstones,[21] which are
the same, beyond any reasonable doubt, as those…set into the breastplate of the Jewish High-Priest.[22]
Considering hardness, Greek names, and especially color helps to identify the 12 breastplate-gemstones and the 24 New Jerusalem gemstones modeled on them.
1. Hardness permits gemstones and what is engraved on them to last for a long time. All the top candidates score high on the Mohs 1–10 scale of hardness: diamond scores 10, ruby 9, sapphire 9, topaz 8, emerald 8–7.5, beryl 8–7.5, jacinth 7.5–6.5, amethyst 7, chalcedony 7–6.5, onyx 7–6.5, chrysolite 7–6.5, chrysoprase 7–6.5, carnelian 7–6.5, jasper 7–6.5, and sardonyx 6.5. The biblical shamir was used to engrave the breastplate-gemstones. It was probably a special diamond, for varying hardness of different diamond faces let diamond engrave even diamond.[23] Layered gemstones like chalcedony, onyx, and sardonyx engrave particularly well. The color of their under-layer shows intaglio through their engraved upper layer. For example, the onyx (SHOHAM) has its white under-layer layer showing through its black upper layer as white intaglio letters both as the two very large and very excellent onyxes having the names of the tribes¼engraved upon them[24] on the High-Priest’s shoulders, and also as the 11th breastplate gemstone.
2. Greek Names help identify biblical gemstones too. John’s own list of foundation gemstones (v. 21.19–20) may be the best reliable Greek list of the breastplate-gemstones. How come? The reason is that John, having served actively as a Temple-Priest, knew the breastplate-gemstones of his High-Priest kinsman first-hand. He would know their Hebrew names, colors, and tribal names very well, and importantly also their Greek names for Greek-speaking pilgrims, on which his New Jerusalem gemstones were modeled. These Greek names are:
 1. IASPIS (diamond),
 2. SAPPHEIROS (sapphire),
 3. CHALCEDON (chalcedony),
 4. SMARAGDOS (emerald),
 5. SARDONUX (sardonyx),
 6. SARDION (ruby),
 7. CHRUSOLITHOS (chrysolite),
 8. BEIRULOS (beryl),
 9. TOPAZION(topaz),
10. CHRUSOPRASUS (chrysoprase),
11. HUAKINTHOS(jacinth), and
12. AMETHUSTOS (amethyst).
These Greek names translate into similar-sounding English names (apart from for IASPIS as diamond and SARDIONas ruby).
Three other Greek breastplate-gemstones lists differ from John’s by four names. In each row appear the same three gemstones but in varying orders. The Septuagint Greek Old Testament lists (by row): SARDION, TOPAZION, and SMARAGDOS; ANTHRAX, SAPPHEIROS, and IASPIS; LIGURION, ACHATEIS, and AMETHUSTOS; and CHRUSOLITHOS, BEIRULOS, and ONUX. Josephus lists: SARDONUX (presumably he meant SARDONUX), TOPAZION, and SMARAGDOS; ANTHRAX, IASPIS, and SAPPHEIROS; LIGURION, AMETHUSTOS, and ACHATEIS; CHRUSOLITHOS, ONUX, and BEIRULOS. Separately, Josephus also lists: SARDION, TOPAZION, and SMARAGDOS; ANTHRAX, IASPIS, and SAPPHEIROS; ACHATEIS, AMETHUSTOS, and LIGURION; ONUX, BEIRULOS,and CHRUSOLITHOS.[25]The rows varying in order may be due to Josephus cross-translating right-to-left Hebrew to left-to-right Greek via his native right-to-left Aramaic and muddling script-directions!
3. Color, the most popular gemstone hallmark, identifies the breastplate-gemstones best (even if most colors come from trace elements). The Midrash Rabah says that the vividly dyed military ensigns of the tribes match the color of the precious gemstones on the breastplate (painting its point pertinently by punning tsavaor army with tsev’a or color, as follows in mixed seniority and birth tribal order:
 1. Reuben’s ODEM is red
 2. Simeon’s PTIDAHis green
 3. Levi’s BAREKETis a third white, a third black, a third red
 4. Judah’s NOFECHis like a type of sky
 5. Issachar’s SAFIRis black like blue
 6. Zebulon’s YAHALOMis white
 7. Dan’s LESHEMis like safir
 8. Gad’s SHVOis not black, not white, but mixed black-white
 9. Naphtali’s ACHLAMAHis like clear wine whose redness is not harsh
10. Asher’s TARSHISHis like a stone that women adorn themselves with
11. Joseph’s SHOHAMis deep black
12. Benjamin’s YASPEHhas the colors of the twelve colors.[26]
Ginzberg’s Legends of the Jews confirms that the YASPEH changes color, being now red, now green, now even black; that the BAREKET beams like lightning; and that the ODEM, YAHALOM, and NOFECHare respectively red, white, and green. Other sources show that the LESHEM is glittering, the TARSHISH is the color of the Great Sea, and the YAHALOM (more likely BAREKET) is calf-eye.[27]
 

The High-Priest’s Breastplate Gemstones

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
New Jerusalem’s 24 Gemstones. Pondering hardness, Greek names, and color helps to identify the following 12 New Jerusalem gemstones in their tribal order
 1. Beryl(the 4th breastplate NOFECH)—its tribal list led by Judah
 2. Ruby(the 1st breastplate ODEM)—its list led by Reuben
 3. Chrysoprase(the 8th breastplate SHVO)—its list led by Gad
 4. Amethyst(the 10thbreastplate TARSHISH)—its list led by Asher
 5. Jacinth(the 9thbreastplate ACHLAMAH)—its list led by Naphtali
 6. Chrysolite(the 7thbreastplate LESHEM)—its list led by Dan
 7. Emerald(the 2ndbreastplate PTIDAH)—its list led by Simeon
 8. Sardonyx(the 3rdbreastplate BAREKET)—its list led by Levi
 9. Sapphire(the 5thbreastplate SAFIR)—its list led by Issachar
10. Chalcedony(the 6th  breastplate YAHALOM)—its list led by Zebulon
11. Onyx(the 11thbreastplate SHOHAM)—its list led by Joseph
12. Diamond(the 12th breastplate YASPEH)—its list led by Benjamin.
In their turn, the 12 foundation-gemstones of New Jerusalem identify as
 1. Diamond (IASPIS)—its apostolic list led by Peter
 2. Sapphire (SAPPHEIROS)—its list led by Simeon
 3. Chalcedony (CHALCEDON)—its list led by John
 4. Emerald (SMARAGDOS)—its list led by Andrew
 5. Sardonyx (SARDONUX)—its list led by Philip
 6. Ruby (SARDION)—its list led by Bartholomew
 7. Chrysolite (CHRUSOLITHOS)—its list led by Matthew
 8. Beryl (BEIRULOS)—its list led by Thomas
 9. Topaz (TOPAZION)—its list led by James
10. Chrysoprase (CHRUSOPRASUS)—its list led by Thaddeus
11. Jacinth (HUAKINTHOS)—its list led by Simon
12. Amethyst (AMETHUSTOS)—its list led by Matthias.
The 12 breastplate-gemstones, the New Jerusalem 12 gate-gemstones and 12 foundation-gemstones are connected by two symbolic bridges:
1. The last diamond breastplate-YASPAH becomes the first diamond foundation-IASPIS. Likewise the youngest tribal name Benjamin on the YASPEH diamond becomes the senior Apostle name Peter on the IASPIS diamond. Both times “the last becomes the first”.
2. The black onyx as a breastplate and gate gemstone signifies the old dark war-weary days of the millennial work week. But as a foundation gemstone it transforms into the gold topaz to shine the new glory of universal education needed so sorely to kick-start the Millennium.
The Structure of the New Jerusalem Gates and Foundations
The 12 gates and the 12 foundations of the New Jerusalem wall land from the sky (v. 21.10) like Leggo pieces taking up position along traditional Middle East lines from the south-east cornerstone. John sees the wall’s gates pincer the city counter-clockwise east and north, then clockwise south and west (v. 21.13). Each gate takes its lead name as the tribal name that entrained its gemstone from the breastplate. John’s first tribal trio Judah, Reuben, and Gad heads the lists on the gates of the east side-wall. Asher, Naphtali, and Manasseh head those on the north side-wall. Simeon, Levi, and Issachar head those on the south side-wall. And Zebulon, Joseph, Benjaminheads those on the west side-wall. The first name in each trio (Judah, Asher, Simeon, or Zebulon) heads the lists on the important central gates. The second name (Reuben, Naphtali, Levi, or Joseph) heads those on the right-hand gates (leading into the city per Comment 21:13). The third name (Gad, Manasseh, Issachar, or Benjamin) heads those on the left-hand gates.
The 12 New Jerusalem foundations are bedrock strata that stack up from the first bottom-most hardest diamond stratum up to the last topmost amethyst stratum. Each 12 horizontal stratum projects up a vertical columns between the gates, 12 in all ringing the city in reverse zodiac order counter-clockwise from the southeast cornerstone (vv. 21.14–20). The four foundation columns of the special east wall, have lists headed and graced by the four leading Apostles Peter, James, John, and Andrew greeting the East and its Baha’i suns.
 Structure of New Jerusalem: gates, foundations, and gemstones
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The breastplate-gemstones signify zodiac signs, for
what else can they be emblems of, except of the circle of the zodiac…the months or the constellations, which the Greeks call the circle of the zodiac?[28]
Also the New Jerusalem gemstones signify zodiac signs: the diamond Pisces, the sapphire Aquarius, the chalcedony Capricorn, the emerald Sagittarius, the sardonyx Scorpio, the ruby Libra, the chrysolite Virgo, the beryl Leo, the topaz Cancer, the chrysoprase Gemini, the jacinth Taurus, and the amethyst Aries.[29]
Amazingly, the 12 foundation-gemstones of New Jerusalem follow an exact reverse zodiacal sequence.[30]Why, surely not by accident? Perhaps John trying to stand esoteric knowledge conflicting with faith on its head? No, quite the opposite. The 12 zodiac signs signify not only the passage of months over the year but of Zodiac Ages (Months) over a grand Great Platonic Year. Twelve Zodiac Ages or Months, each lasting 2,147 years, form a Platonic Year of 25,765 years. During over a Platonic Year the earth wobbles once in space as a giant slow-motion spinning-top. The wobble creates two types of year: the well-known seasonal year set by the sun, and the less-known cosmic year set by the stars. Seasonal and cosmic years are almost—but not quite—the same length. Each cosmic year slips by just 20½ minutes quicker than each seasonal year, and the discrepency adds up to full calendar month every 2,147–year Zodiac Age.
As a result, the welcome that the regular calendar gives to each star-set Zodiac Age comes earlier and earlier, the past  few as follows:
The Age of Gemini as the Era of twin-gods like Isis and Osiris
The Age of Taurus as the Era of the god Baal and bull-sacrifice
The Age of Aries as the Era of Judaism and ram-sacrifice
The Age of Pisces as the Era of Christianity and fishing-for-men
This new Age of Aquarius as the Era of the Baha’i Faith and its water of knowledge.

This running backwards of Zodiac Ages is called precession (the precession of the equinoxes),[31] which is simply what the reverse zodiac sequence of the New Jerusalem gemstones traces. 



[1] The Holy City, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, SAQ 13.67, PUP102, & SW3.10.7; Rev. 21.2
A prophetic symbol, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, Paris Talks 84
This heavenly Jerusalem, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, PUP102
[2] Reflect upon, Baha’u’llah, Scriptures, Tablet to the Jews 47.117
The heavenly religion, Tablets of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá 3.539, Scriptures 793.437; ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, SWA59; Baha’u’llah, KI 199, GWB125.269–70
This Day Jerusalem, Baha’u’llah, PB90–91
None other than, Baha’u’llah Athar-i-Qalami-i-A’la; KI199
Once in about a thousand years, Baha’u’llah, KI 199, GWB125.269–70
Law which the Prophet Isaiah, GPB213
[3] Material civilization, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, Tablet to the Hague 8
Has heretofore, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, PUP170
Attained a marvelous, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, Foundations of World Unity 30–31; PUP170 & 20
[4] In Hayutman’s Realizing the Heavenly Jerusalem
[5] Baha’u’llah, PB 89, TB1.4, &ESW112
[6] Diamonds of immortality, Baha’u’llah, Gems 20.17
Diamond blazing in, Shoghi Effendi, Lights 1571.476
Chips hewn from, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá cited by Latimer, Light of the World Foreword,8. http://bahai-library.org/pilgrims/light.of.world.html
Diamond age, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá (1919), Tablets, Instructions and Words of Explanation 18. bahai-library.com/books/tablets.instructions.html; also cited by Latimer, Light of the World Foreword,8. http://bahai-library.org/pilgrims/light.of.world.html
[7] Lighted up, Targum Genesis Bereshit Rabah s31, cited by Jastrow. Dictionary 836
Has all the colors, Midrash Rabah Num. 2.7
Changes color,Ginzberg Legends of the Jews 3.169–71
[8] Rev. 4.3, 21.11, 21.18 & 21.19; Stern, Complete Jewish Bible 1536 & 1554
[9] Jewels and pearls, Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra 5.75a
24 gemstones,Chesser, personal communication
24 watches,Rashi’s Commentary onChronicles 27.13; http://jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp‌?artid=122&letter=T
[10] Birth order lists wife Leah’s Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah; Rachel’s maid Bilhah’s Dan and Naphtali; Leah’s maid Zilpah’s Gad and Asher; wife Leah’s Issachar and Zebulon; and wife Rachel’s Joseph and Benjamin (Gen. 29.32–30.24 & 35.18). Seniority order lists wife Leah’s Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, and Zebulon; wife Rachel’s Joseph and Benjamin; Leah’s maid Zilpah’s Gad and Asher; and Rachel’s maid Bilhah’s Dan and Naphtali (Gen. 35.23–26 & Exod. 1.2–5)
[11] Gen. 46.8–27 & 49.2–27, Num. 1.5–15, 13.4–14, Ezek. 48, Num. 2, and Midrash Rabah Num. 2.7
[12] Historically, the tribe of Judah absorbed Benjamin and part of Levi
[13] Babylonian Talmud, Sotah 2.36a
[14] Encyclopaedia Biblica 1903 Edition, Tribes, 4Q–Z. 5208 (5199–209)
[15] IKings 12.29–30, Judges 18.30–31; Hippolytus, De Antichristo 14; & Irenaeus Adv. Haer. 5.30.2
[16] Mark 3:13–19, Matt. 10:2–4, Luke 6:12–19, & Acts 1:13 & 26, also Commentary 1:20
[17] Exod. 28.17–20 & 39.10–13
[18] Isaiah 54.12 & Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra 75a
[19] ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, PUP 199
[20] As happens with items like vegetables and musical instruments too
[21] Charles, Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Revelation of St. John 2.165–70, 207–08; Beale, Revelation: Commentary on the Greek Text 1079–93; Swete, Apocalypse of St. John: the Greek Text; Stuart Commentary on the Apocalypse 725–27; Thomas, Revelation: Exegetical Commentary; Prigent, Commentary on the Apocalypse of St. John; & Aune, Word Biblical Commentary, Revelation
[22] Stuart, Commentary on the Apocalypse 726
[23] Shamir, Babylonian Talmud, Pessachim 54a, Sotah 48b; faces of different hardness, Schumann, Gemstones of the World 70.
[24] Josephus, War of the Jews 5.5.7, also Exod. 28.9–11
[25] Septuagint Exod. 28.17–20; Josephus Antiquities of the Jews 3.7.5; Josephus War of the Jews 5.5.7
[26] Midrash Rabah Num. 2.7
[27] Ginzberg Legends of the Jews 3.169–71; Targum Neophiti SAMKATAH(Reuben), YARKATAH(Simeon), BARKATA(Levi), CHADCHADINAH(Judah), SAFRINAH(Issachar), ‘AIN AGLAH(calf eye; Zebulon), LESHEM ZUZIN(glittering; Dan), VERULIN(Naphtali), ZMARGADIN(Gad), KRUM YAMAH RABAH(color of the Mediterranean sea; Asher), BADLACHAH(Joseph), andMARGALITAH(Benjamin).Separately, Targum Onkelos, Aramaic Torah, Exod. 28.17, Midrash Rabah Exod. 39.9–13 supplies a list in newer Aramaic: SHADRAGNIN(Reuben), SHIMPOZIN(Simeon), DAIKANITIN(Levi), BARDININ(Judah), SANPRINON(Issachar), ESMARGADIN(Zebulon), KOCHLIN(Dan), AVATIS(Naphtali), HIMOSION(Gad), KROMTISIN(Asher), PRALOKIN(Joseph), andMARGALITOS(Benjamin)Exod.28.17–20 & 39.10–13 supplies a list in older Aramaic:
[28] Philo, Life of Moses 2.24.124–26, Special Laws 1.16.87 & Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 3.7.7
[29] Kircher, Oedipus Aegyptiacus 2.2.177–78, courtesy of St. John’s College Library, Cambridge, www.joh.cam.ac.uk/library
[30]Charles 207–08, also quoting Encyclopaedia Biblica 1903 Edition, Gemstones 2E–K.4799–4812
[31] Duncan, The Calendar 324